Blechschmidt Collection

From Human Embryology


Blechschmidt model collection room.jpg
Blechschmidt model collection room
Blechschmidt embryo slides

University of Göttingen, Germany.

Prof. Christoph Viebahn (Head of Embryology Department).

Eric Blechschmidt (1904 – 1992)

Prof. Eric Blechschmidt (1904 – 1992)

The Blechschmidt Collection, named for Erich Blechschmidt (1904 – 1992), developed methods of human embryo reconstruction from serial sections and generated large models describing the embryonic period of human development.[1] The models include whole surface views as well as detailed views of embryo internal structures.

The collection consists of 64 models and from about 120 human embryos approximately 200,000 serial sections. Some of these embryo serial section sets were incorporated in 1972 into the Carnegie Collection (assigned Carnegie Nos. 10315-10434), but have since been returned to the University of Göttingen. Note the alternate spelling for Göttingen in English is Goettingen.

(More? Educational information)

Collection Scanning

This collection has been the first of the DEC to be scanned and has been a testbed for the equipment, slide preparation and associated documentation. Based upon these results we have now developed a set of standard protocols for future collection scanning. My special thanks to Hannes Sydow, who has been involved with the many technical aspects of collection scanning.

Anatomische Gesellschaft Gottingen poster2016.jpg Blechschmidt collection HDD.jpg
Anatomische Gesellschaft (Gottingen 2016) Blechschmidt collection HDD

2017 Test Image Link

Selected slides form the Blechschmidt Collection are available for registered user access. Please advise me if you are unable to see the linked files below following log-in.

This only in a trial, final database will vary from this draft test structure. Current total database size of Blechschmidt trial 39.22 GB.

  • Folder - Each embryo has own folder with the original embryo name (date).
  • Project Details - CRL in mm and total number of slides available (from catalogue).
  • Tag - Plane of embryo section (Sagittal, Frontal, Transverse). Collection name (Blechschmidt).
  • Slide - Slide number as described in file name (Trial - Not all scanned slides are currently uploaded).


Slide template image

Embryo Examples


11 mm frontal - 29 slides total 76 (1951-09-01)


This is the macro image JPG of slide003 in this set. Directly exported to desktop from database, It has not been modified.

Direct link to slide in database - Slide003 macro image

1950 01 11 Slide 3.jpg


1950 04 20 Slide010.jpg

Slide 10


1950 11 28 Slide050.jpg

Slide 50


1950 12 08 Slide030.jpg

Slide 30

Slide 50

1950 12 08 Slide 050.jpg


1951 03 20 Slide010.jpg

Slide 10


1952 03 10 Slide002.jpg

Slide 2

1952 03 10 Slide050.jpg

Slide 50


1963_05_06 55 slides total

Slide 35

1963 05 06 Slide 35.jpg

University of Göttingen


  1. E BLECHSCHMIDT [Reconstruction method by using synthetic substances; a process for investigation and demonstration of developmental movements]. [Rekonstruktionsverfahren mit Verwendung von Kunststoffen; ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung und Demonstration von Entwicklungsbewegungen.] Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch: 1954, 118(2);170-4 PubMed 13227045

Book - The prenatal developmental stages of man. An Introduction to Human Embryology. Karger, Basel 1960 (German-English parallel text).


PubMed - E. Blechschmidt  

Note - Publication list is sorted into chronological order and the square brackets indicate that these are published in German language.

E Blechschmidt The programming of afferent and efferent nervous fibers in man. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr (1970): 1977, 224(3);259-72 PubMed 597031

E Blechschmidt [Error of the basic biogenetic law]. [Der Irrtum des Biogenetischen Grundgesetzes] Fortschr. Med.: 1976, 94(9);465-6, 492 PubMed 964903

E Blechschmidt [Embryology today. New cognitions and perceptions]. [Embryologie heute. Neue Erkenntnisse und Auffassungen] Hippokrates: 1974, 45(1);3-21 PubMed 4846031

E Blechschmidt [Developmental dynamics of the visceral arches. Functional differentiation]. [Die Entwicklungsdynamik der Visceralbögen. (Funktionelle Differenzierungen.] HNO: 1970, 18(9);261-71 PubMed 5535179

E Blechschmidt, H Konitz, H Kontokollias [The spiralization process in myelin sheath development]. [Der Spiralisierungsprozess bei der Markscheidenbildung.] Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr (1970): 1970, 213(1);1-10 PubMed 5417832

E Blechschmidt [Differentiations in the kinetic field. (Conditions for development of the metamere)]. [Differenzierungen im kinetischen Feld. (Entstehungsbedingungen der Metamerie)] Acta Anat (Basel): 1969, 73(3);351-71 PubMed 4244915

E Blechschmidt [The metabolic fields of the human ovum (current views on early human develop)]. [Die Stoffwechselfelder des menschlichen Eis (Unsere heutige Auffassung von der menschlichen Frühentwicklung)] Z Geburtshilfe Gynakol: 1968, 168(2);143-55 PubMed 5707278

E Blechschmidt, S Göttlicher [The developmental-dynamic differentiation of the colon musculature]. [Die entwicklungsdynamische Differenzierung der Colonmuskulatur.] Z Morphol Anthropol: 1968, 59(3);322-31 PubMed 5696837

E Blechschmidt, R Arndt [The developmental kinetic performance of the commissural tracts. (The capacity of cell aggregations for formative functions in the brain primordium]. [Die entwicklungskinetischen Leistungen der Kommissurenbahnen. (Die Fähigkeit von Zellverbänden zu Gestaltungsfunktionen in der Gehirnanlage)] Z Morphol Anthropol: 1967, 58(3);243-52 PubMed 5595003

E Blechschmidt, H Neumann [The ultrastructure of the ciliary and desmosomal primordia in the human eye. (The submicroscopic relationship of the pigment epithel with the retina]. [Die Ultrastruktur der Zilien und Desmosomenanlagen im menschlichen Auge. (Die submikroskopische Verwandtschaft des Pigmentepithels mit der Retina)] Z Morphol Anthropol: 1967, 58(3);230-42 PubMed 5595002

E Blechschmidt, D Petersen [Early embryonic developmental movements of the human arm as a factor of possible malformations]. [Die frühembryonalen Entwicklungsbewegungen des menschlichen Armes als Faktor möglicher Missbildungen.] Ergeb Chir Orthop: 1967, 49;62-111 PubMed 6017719

E Blechschmidt [The developmental movements of the human eye vesicle. Their meaning for the early physiognomy]. [Die Entwicklungsbewegungen der menschlichen Augenblase. Ihre Bedeutung für die frühe Gesichtsbildung.] Ophthalmologica: 1967, 153(4);291-308 PubMed 6030901

E Blechschmidt, S Daikoku [Regional differences in embryonal dendrites and neurites. (Electronmicroscopic study)]. [Die regionale Verschiedenheit embryonaler Dendriten und Neuriten (Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchung)] Acta Anat (Basel): 1966, 65(1);30-57 PubMed 5965970

E Blechschmidt, S Daikoku [The formation of motor innervation in the human tongue musculature. Electron microscopy of embryonal end-plates]. [Die Entstehung der motorischen Innervation in der menschlichen Zungenmuskulatur. Elektronenmikroskopie der embryonalen Endplatte.] Acta Anat (Basel): 1966, 63(2);179-98 PubMed 5915888


E BLECHSCHMIDT [The formation functions of the human epidermis. I. The formation of layers of the integument]. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol: 1963, 215;567-78 PubMed 13971601

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Electron microscopic studies on the medullary tube of chicken embryos]. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch: 1960, 121;434-45 PubMed 13801428

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Developmental movements of somites and their significance for the segmentation of the spinal cord]. [Die Entwicklungsbewegungen der Somiten und ihre Bedeutung für die Gliederung der Wirbelsäule.] Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch: 1957, 120(3);150-72 PubMed 13531202

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Vacuolization processes in the embryonic meninges and in the neural tube; a contribution to developmental kinetics]. [Vacuolisierungsvorgänge in den embryonalen Meningen und im Neuralrohr; beiträge zur Entwicklungskinetik.] Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch: 1957, 120(1);45-71 PubMed 13456662

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Developmental and functional research on the movement mechanism; coordination of developmental movements, somatogenesis]. [Entwicklungsfunktionelle Untersuchungen am Bewegungsapparat; Koordination von Entwicklungsbewegungen, Somatogenese.] Acta Anat (Basel): 1956, 27(1-2);62-88 PubMed 13338966

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Studies of the functional development of the external ear in humans]. [Entwicklungsfunktionelle Untersuchungen an der menschlichen Ohrmuschel.] Acta Anat (Basel): 1955, 25(2-4);204-20 PubMed 13301196

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Embryological studies from the functional point of view]. [Embryologische Untersuchungen unter funktionellen Gesichtspunkten.] Acta Anat (Basel): 1955, 24(3-4);339-92 PubMed 13258087

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Growth factors of descensus testis]. [Wachstumsfaktoren des Descensus testis.] Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch: 1955, 118(3);175-82 PubMed 14386871

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Study of the functional development of the nervous system (genesis of growth coordination)]. [Entwicklungsfunktionelle Untersuchungen am Nervensystem (Entstehung von Wachstumskoordinationen).] Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch: 1955, 119(2);112-30 PubMed 13300226

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Reconstruction method by using synthetic substances; a process for investigation and demonstration of developmental movements]. [Rekonstruktionsverfahren mit Verwendung von Kunststoffen; ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung und Demonstration von Entwicklungsbewegungen.] Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch: 1954, 118(2);170-4 PubMed 13227045

E BLECHSCHMIDT [The development of the tooth germ in man dynamic formation of the human embryo]. [Die Entwicklung der Zahnkeime beim Menschen; zum Studium der Entwicklungsdynamik der menschlichen Embryonen.] Acta Anat (Basel): 1953, 17(3);207-39 PubMed 13050279

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Recent contributions to dental histology]. [Neuere Beiträge zur Zahnhistologie.] Dtsch Zahnarztl Z: 1953, 8(1);17-8 PubMed 13051998

E BLECHSCHMIDT [Functional development of Corti's organ]. [Funktionsentwicklung des Cortischen Organs.] Arch Ohren Nasen Kehlkopfheilkd: 1952, 162(1);35-52 PubMed 12986790

E BLECHSCHMIDT, W SCHUTZ [Marking by sublimation in a vacuum]. [Objektmarkierung durch Metallbedampfung im Hochvakuum.] Anat Anz: 1951, 97(Suppl.);177-8 PubMed 14915090

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